The Social Norms Approach:
—Recent Journal Articles, Case Studies, Reports, and Books—
Bibliographic Information

Provided here is bibliographic information for work either directly or indirectly related to the social norms approach that has been published over the past several years in a wide variety of disciplines. (Please note: Within each discipline heading, articles are presented in reverse chronological order of publication.)

Academic Achievement

Braxton, J. and Caboni, T. "Using Student Norms to Create Positive Learning Environments." About Campus, January-February, 2005: 2-7.

Adolescent ATOD Prevention

Gunther, A., Bolt, D., Borzekowski, G., Liebhart, J. Price Dillard, J. "Presumed Influence on Peer Norms: How Mass Media Indirectly Affect Adolescent Smoking." Journal of Communication, 2006, 56(1):52-68.

Weiss J. W, Garbanati J.A. "Effects of acculturation and social norms on adolescent smoking among asian-american subgroups." Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse, 2006;5(2):75-90.

Macauly, A.P., Griffin, K.W., Gronewold, E., Williams, C., Botvin, G.J. " Parenting Practices and Adolescent Drug-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, Norms and Behavior." Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education, 2005, 49(2):67-83.

College Students: High-Risk Drinking

LaBrie, J.W., Lamb, T.F., Pedersen, E.R., and Quinlan, T. "A Group Motivational Interviewing Intervention Reduces Drinking and Alcohol-Related Consequences in Adjudicated College Students " Journal of College Student Development, May/June 2006, 47(3): 267-280.

Lewis, M.A., Neighbors, C. "Social Norms Approaches Using Descriptive Drinking Norms Education: A Review of the Research on Personalized Normative Feedback," Journal of American College Health, 2006, 54(4): 213-218.

Boyle, J.R., Boekeloo, B.O. "Perceived Parental Approval of Drinking and its Impact on Problem Drinking Behaviors among First-Year College Students." Journal of American College Health, 2006, 54(4): 238-244.

Mallett, K., Lee, C.M., Neighbors, C., Larimer, M.E., and Turrisi, R. "Do We Learn from Our Mistakes? An Examination of the Impact of Negative Alcohol-Related Consequences on College Students' Drinking Patterns and Perceptions." Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 2006, 67(2): 269-276.

Neighbors, C., Oster-Aaland, L., Bergstrom, R.L., and Lewis, M.A. "Event- and Context-Specific Normative Misperceptions and High-Risk Drinking: 21st Birthday Celebrations and Football Tailgating." Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 2006, 67(2): 282-289.

Neighbors, C., Dillard, A.J., Lewis, M.A., Bergstrom, R.L., and Neil, T.A. "Normative Misperceptions and Temporal Precedence of Perceived Norms and Drinking."Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 2006, 67(2): 290-299.

Cho, H. "Readiness to change, norms, and self-efficacy among heavy-drinking college students." Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 2006, 67(1): 131-138.

Perkins, H. W., Haines, M. P., and Rice, R. "Misperceiving the College Drinking Norm and Related Problems: A Nationwide Study of Exposure to Prevention Information, Perceived Norms and Student Alcohol Misuse." Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 2005, 66:470-478.

Walters, S. T. and Neighbors, N. "Feedback Interventions for College Alcohol Misuse: What, Why, and for Whom?" Addictive Behaviors, 2005, 30:1168-1182.

Agostinelli, G. and Grube, J. "Effects of Presenting Heavy Drinking Norms on Adolescents' Prevalence Estimates, Evaluative Judgments, and Perceived Standards." Prevention Science, 2005, Vol. 6, No. 2:89-99.

Lewis, T.F. and Thombs, D.L. "Perceived Risks and Normative Beliefs as Explanatory Models for College Student Alcohol Involvement: An Assessment of a Campus with Conventional Alcohol Control Policies and Enforcement Practices." NASPA Journal, 2005, 42(2):202-222.

Shari Kessel Schneider, Laura Gomberg Towvim, William DeJong "The Social Norms Marketing Research Project: Results for Study 1." The Report on Social Norms, Volume 4(5): February 2005.

Lederman. L. and Stewart, L., Changing The Culture Of College Drinking: A Socially Situated Health Communication Campaign. Hampton Press, 2005.

Larimer, M., Turner, A., Mallett, K., and Geisner, I. "Predicting drinking behavior and alcohol-related problems among fraternity and sorority members: Examining the role of descriptive and injunctive norms." Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 2004, 18(3):203-212.

Lewis, M.A., and Neighbors, C. "Gender-Specific Misperceptions of College Student Drinking Norms." Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 2004, Vol. 18, No. 4, 334-339.

Martens, M.P., Taylor, K.K., Damann, K.M., Page, L.C., Mowry, E.S., and Cimini, M.D. "Protective Behavioral Strategies When Drinking Alcohol and Their Relationship to Negative Alcohol-Related Consequences in College Students." Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 2004, Vol. 18, No. 4, 390-393.

Turner, J.C., Bauerle, J. and Shu, J. "Estimated Blood Alcohol Concentration Correlation with Self-Reported Negative Consequences among College Students Using Alcohol. " Journal of Studies on Alcohol, Vol 65, Number 6, November 2004.

Douglas J.Beirness, Robert D. Foss, and Muriel Vogel-Sprott, "Drinking on Campus: Self-Reports and Breath Tests ." Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 65: 600-604, 2004.

Neighbors, C., Larimer, M.E., Lewis, M.A. "Targeting Misperceptions of Descriptive Drinking Norms: Efficacy of a Computer-Delivered Personalized Normative Feedback Intervention." Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 2004, Vol. 72, No. 3, 434-447.

Mattern, J. and Neighbors, C. "Social norms campaigns: examining the relationship between changes in perceived norms and changes in drink levels." Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 65:489-493, 2004.

College Students: Marijuana Use

Kilmer, J.R., Walker, D.D., Lee, C.M., Palmer, R.S., Mallett, K.A., Fabiano, P., and Larimer, M.E. "Misperceptions of College Student Marijuana Use: Implications for Prevention." Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 2006, 67(2): 277-281.

DUI Prevention

Linkenbach, J. How to Use Social Norms Marketing to Prevent Driving after Drinking: A Most of Us Toolkit. Most of Us/Montana State University-Bozeman, Bozeman, MT, 2006.

Linkenbach, J., Perkins, H.W. "Montana's MOST of Us Don't Drink and Drive Campaign: A Social Norms Strategy to Reduce Impaired Driving Among 21-34-Year-Olds." National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) Publication: DOT HS 809 869 An online version in HTML format is available at:
An online version in PDF format is available at:

Eating Disorders

Eisenberg, M.E., Neumark-Sztainer, D., Story, M., and Perry , C. "The role of social norms and friends' influences on unhealthy weight-control behaviors among adolescent girls." Social Science & Medicine 2005, 60(6):1165-1173.

Brener N.D, Eaton DK, Lowry R, McManus T. "The association between weight perception and BMI among high school students."Obesity Research, 2004,12(11):1866-1874.

Environmental Studies

Corral-Verdugo, V. and Frias-Armenta, Martha. "Personal Normative Beliefs, Antisocial Behavior, and Residential Water Conservation." Envionment and Behavior, 2006, 38(3):406-421.

Kneeshaw, K., Vaske, J.J., Bright, A.D., Absher, J.D. "Acceptability norms toward fire management in three national forests." Environment and Behavior, 2004, 36(4):592-612.

Intimate Partner Violence and Violence Prevention

Bohner, G., Siebler, F., Schmelcher, J. "Social Norms and the Likelihood of Raping: Perceived Rape Myth Acceptance of Others Affects Men's Rape Proclivity." Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 2006, 32(3):286-297.

Taylor, C. A., and Sorensen, S.B. "Community-based norms about intimate partner violence: Putting attributions of fault and responsibility into context." Sex Roles, 53(7/8):573-589.

Bernburg, J.G. "Violent values, conduct norms, and youth aggression: A multilevel study in Iceland. " The Sociological Quarterly, 2005, 46:457-478.

Werner, N.E., Nixon, C.L. "Normative Beliefs and Relational Aggression: An Investigation of the Cognitive Bases of Adolescent Aggressive Behavior." Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 2005:34(3),229-243.

Sorensen, S.B., Taylor, C.A. "Female Aggression Toward Male Intimate Partners: An Examination of Social Norms in a Community-Based Sample." Psychology of Women Quarterly, 2005, 29:78-96.

Fabiano, P., Perkins, H.W., Berkowitz, A., Linkenbach, J. and Stark, C. "Engaging men as social justice allies in ending violence against women: evidence for a social norms approach." Journal of American College Health, 2004, Vol. 52 No. 3, pp. 105-112.

STI Prevention

Peterson, J.L., and Bakeman, R. "Impact of Beliefs about HIV Treatment and Peer Condom Norms on Risky Sexual Behavior among Gay and Bisexual Men." Journal of Community Psychology, 2006, 34(1):37-46.

Chernoff, R.A., Davison, G.C. "An Evaluation of A Brief HIV/AIDS Prevention Intervention for College Students Using Normative Feedback and Goal Setting." AIDS Education and Prevention, 2005:17(2),91-104.

Albarracin, D., Kumkale, G.T., Johnson, B.T. "Influences of social power and normative support on condom use decisions: A research synthesis." AIDS Care, 2004, 16(6):700-723.

Lynch, J.F., Mowrey, R.J., Nesbitt, G.M., and O'Neill, D.F."Risky Business: Misperceived Norms of Sexual Behavior Among College Students." NASPA Journa;, 2004 (Fall), 42(1):21-35.

Latkin, C.A., Forman, V., Knowlton, A., Sherman, S. "Norms, social networks, and HIV-related risk behaviors among urban disadvantaged drug users." Social Science and Medicine, 2003,56(3):465-476.

Tax Compliance

Wenzel, M. "Motivation or Rationalisation? Causal Relations between Ethics, Norms and Tax Compliance." Journal of Economic Psychology, 2005,26:491-508.

Theory and Implementation

Smith, S., Atkin, C., Martell, D., Allen, R., Hembroff, L. "A Social Judgment Theory Approach to Conducting Formative Research in a Social Norms Campaign." Communication Theory, 2006, 16:141-152.

H. Wesley Perkins (Editor). The Social Norms Approach to Preventing School and College Age Substance Abuse: A Handbook for Educators, Counselors, and Clinicians. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2003.

Workplace Safety

Linnan, L., LaMontagne, A.D., Stoddard, A., Emmons, K.M., and Sorensen, G. "Norms and their relationship to behavior in worksite settings: An application of the Jackson Return Potential Model." American Journal of Health Behavior, 2005, 29(3):258-268.

Prepared by:
The National Social Norms Resource Center
Revised July 21, 2006.